The boundaries of Palestine have varied throughout history. During the Arab Caliphate period, parts of southern Lebanon and the northern highland areas of Palestine and Jordan were administered as Jund al-Urdun , while the southern parts of the latter two formed part of Jund Dimashq , which during the 9th century was attached to the administrative unit of Jund Filastin.
The boundaries of the area and the ethnic nature of the people referred to by Herodotus in the 5th century BCE as Palaestina vary according to context. Sometimes, he uses it to refer to the coast north of Mount Carmel. Elsewhere, distinguishing the Syrians in Palestine from the Phoenicians, he refers to their land as extending down all the coast from Phoenicia to Egypt. Nineteenth-century sources refer to Palestine as extending from the sea to the caravan route, presumably the Hejaz-Damascus route east of the Jordan River valley.
The modern definition of the region follows the boundaries of that entity, which were fixed in the North and East in —23 by the British Mandate for Palestine including the Transjordan memorandum and the Paulet—Newcombe Agreement ,  and on the South by following the Turco-Egyptian boundary agreement. The region of Palestine is the eponym for the Palestinian people and the culture of Palestine , both of which are defined as relating to the whole historical region, usually defined as the localities within the border of Mandatory Palestine.
The Palestinian National Covenant described Palestine as the "homeland of the Arab Palestinian people", with "the boundaries it had during the British Mandate". This discrepancy was described by the Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas as a negotiated concession in a September speech to the United Nations: " The term Palestine is also sometimes used in a limited sense to refer to the parts of the Palestinian territories currently under the administrative control of the Palestinian National Authority , a quasi-governmental entity which governs parts of the State of Palestine under the terms of the Oslo Accords.
Estimating the population of Palestine in antiquity relies on two methods — censuses and writings made at the times, and the scientific method based on excavations and statistical methods that consider the number of settlements at the particular age, area of each settlement, density factor for each settlement. The sheer scale and scope of the overall destruction has been described by Dio Cassius in his Roman History , where he notes that Roman war operations in the country had left some , Jews dead, with many more dying of hunger and disease, while 50 of their most important outposts and of their most famous villages were razed to the ground.
According to Israeli archaeologists Magen Broshi and Yigal Shiloh, the population of ancient Palestine did not exceed one million. The towns grew rapidly, villages became larger and more numerous, and there was an extensive development of agriculture, industry, and trade. The two last were certamly helped to no small extent by the influx of Spanish and other Western Jews.
From the mass of detail in the registers, it is possible to extract something like a general picture of the economic life of the country in that period. Out of a total population of about , souls, between a fifth and a quarter lived in the six towns of Jerusalem , Gaza , Safed , Nablus , Ramle , and Hebron. The remainder consisted mainly of peasants, living in villages of varying size, and engaged in agriculture.
Their main food-crops were wheat and barley in that order, supplemented by leguminous pulses, olives, fruit, and vegetables. In and around most of the towns there was a considerable number of vineyards, orchards, and vegetable gardens.
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In , the League of Nations' Interim Report on the Civil Administration of Palestine described the , people living in Palestine as follows: . Of these, , live in the larger towns, , in the smaller towns and villages. Four-fifths of the whole population are Moslems. A small proportion of these are Bedouin Arabs; the remainder, although they speak Arabic and are termed Arabs, are largely of mixed race.
Some 77, of the population are Christians, in large majority belonging to the Orthodox Church, and speaking Arabic. The Jewish element of the population numbers 76, Almost all have entered Palestine during the last 40 years. Prior to , there were in the country only a handful of Jews. In the following 30 years, a few hundreds came to Palestine. Most of them were animated by religious motives; they came to pray and to die in the Holy Land, and to be buried in its soil.
Gaza: The History That Fuels the Conflict
After the persecutions in Russia forty years ago, the movement of the Jews to Palestine assumed larger proportions. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , as of [update] , the total population of Israel was 8. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics evaluations, in the Palestinian population of the West Bank was approximately 2. The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions is widely used in recording the distribution of plants.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Borders of Mandatory Palestine. Further information: Timeline of the name "Palestine". The name is found throughout recorded history.
The non-existent history of a Palestinian state
Examples shown above are 1 Pomponius Mela Latin, c. Main article: History of Palestine. For a more comprehensive list, see Time periods in the Palestine region. The Dome of the Rock , the world's first great work of Islamic architecture , constructed in Minaret of the White Mosque in Ramla , constructed in Arab architecture in the Middle Ages. Further information: Ottoman Syria. Main article: Mandatory Palestine. Further information: Zionism and Palestinian nationalism. Palestine passport and Palestine coin. Modern evolution of Palestine v t e. The red line is the "International Administration" proposed in the Sykes—Picot Agreement , the dashed blue line is the Zionist Organization proposal at the Paris Peace Conference , and the thin blue line refers to the final borders of the —48 Mandatory Palestine.
An ongoing British Mandate was proposed to keep "the sanctity of Jerusalem and Bethlehem ", in the form of an enclave from Jerusalem to Jaffa , including Lydda and Ramle. The proposal included a Corpus Separatum for Jerusalem , extraterritorial crossroads between the non-contiguous areas, and Jaffa as an Arab exclave.
The Jewish population had increased from 83, in to , in Neither Israel's annexation nor Palestine's claim over East Jerusalem has been internationally recognized. See also: Borders of Israel. Main article: Demographic history of Palestine. See also: Demographics of Israel and Demographics of the Palestinian territories.
Main article: List of birds of Palestine. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians Now these are the only nations who use circumcision. We do not know whether they formed the majority but we may assume with some certainly that they did so when grouped together with the Samaritans. The government of Israel and some supporters have, at times, disputed this position of the international community.
In , Andrew Sanger explained the situation as follows: "Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status. Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory.
However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border.
Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory. Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory.
Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker. Since aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry. Dowty Tibet and a militarily occupied territory, please see the article Military occupation.
The "longest military occupation" description has been described in a number of ways, including: "The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times,"  " So this is thirty-three years old [in ], pushing the record,"  "Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades.
Israel - Ancient History Encyclopedia
The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade. This entire region, as stated above, was not occupied exclusively by the Israelites, for the plain along the coast in the south belonged to the Philistines, and that in the north to the Phoenicians, while in the east-Jordan country, the Israelitic possessions never extended farther than the Arnon Wadi al-Mujib in the south, nor did the Israelites ever settle in the most northerly and easterly portions of the plain of Bashan.
To-day the number of inhabitants does not exceed , Palestine, and especially the Israelitic state, covered, therefore, a very small area, approximating that of the state of Vermont. Etymological strictness would require it to denote exclusively the narrow strip of coast-land once occupied by the Philistines, from whose name it is derived. It is, however, conventionally used as a name for the territory which, in the Old Testament, is claimed as the inheritance of the pre-exilic Hebrews; thus it may be said generally to denote the southern third of the province of Syria.
Except in the west, where the country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, the limit of this territory cannot be laid down on the map as a definite line.
The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country.
Even the convention above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory, claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and excludes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num.
However, the Hebrews themselves have preserved, in the proverbial expression " from Dan to Beersheba " Judg. Eastward there is no such definite border. The River Jordan, it is true, marks a line of delimitation between Western and Eastern Palestine ; but it is practically impossible to say where the latter ends and the Arabian desert begins. Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt.
Although some of Herodotus' references to Palestine are compatible with a narrow definition of the coastal strip of the Land of Israel, it is clear that Herodotus does call the "whole land by the name of the coastal strip. Herodotus, who had traveled through the area, would have had firsthand knowledge of the land and its people.
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Bk ii, Ch As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines , in the southwest corner of the land. Feldman, whose view differs from that of Robinson, thinks that Josephus, when referring to Palestine , had in mind only the coastal region, writing: "Writers on geography in the first century [CE] clearly differentiate Judaea from Palestine.
Jewish writers, notably Philo and Josephus , with few exceptions refer to the land as Judaea , reserving the name Palestine for the coastal area occupied [formerly] by the Philistines. See: p. Hebrew Union College Annual. Instead, they avoided the toponym altogether, turning it into an ethnonym. Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 60 Braude: vol. This parallels a shift in the Septuagint's translation of Hebrew pelistim. Before Judges, it uses the neutral transliteration phulistiim, but beginning with Judges it switches to the pejorative allophuloi.
The first is a general map of the country in which the boundaries extend far beyond the frontiers of the Mutasarflik of Jerusalem, which was, until then, the standard delineation of Palestine. The northern borders of this map include the city of Tyre Sur and the Litani River, thus encompassing all of the Galilee and parts of southern Lebanon, as well as districts of Nablus, Haifa and Akka—all of which were part of the Wilayat of Beirut until the end of the war.
Like Pharaoh before him, Herod, having been frustrated in his original efforts, now seeks to achieve his objectives by implementing a program of infanticide. And finally, in perhaps the most vivid parallel of all, the present narrative uses virtually the same words of the earlier one to provide the information that the coast is clear for the herds safe return: here, in Matthew , "go [back]… for those who sought the child's life are dead; there, in Exodus , go back… for all the men who sought your life are dead.
This would make the Israelites "Palestinians" not just in geographical and political terms under the British Mandate, both Jews and Arabs living in the country were defined as Palestinians , but in ethnic and broader cultural terms as well. While this does not conform to the conventional view, or to the understanding of most Jews and Arabs, for that matter , it is not easy to either prove or disprove. For although the Bible speaks at length about how the Israelites "took" the land, it is not a history book to draw reliable maps from.
There is nothing in the extra-biblical sources, including the extensive Egyptian materials, to document the sojourn in Egypt or the exodus so vividly described in the Bible and commonly dated to the thirteenth century.